OpenStack API Documentation

OpenStack APIs

To authenticate access to OpenStack services, you must first issue an authentication request with a payload of credentials to OpenStack Identity to get an authentication token.

Credentials are usually a combination of your user name and password, and optionally, the name or ID of the tenant where your cloud runs. Ask your cloud administrator for your user name, password, and tenant so that you can generate authentication tokens. Alternatively, you can supply a token rather than a user name and password.

When you send API requests, you include the token in the X-Auth-Token header. If you access multiple OpenStack services, you must get a token for each service. A token is valid for a limited time before it expires. A token can also become invalid for other reasons. For example, if the roles for a user change, existing tokens for that user are no longer valid.

Authentication and API request workflow

  1. Request an authentication token from the Identity endpoint that your cloud administrator gave you. Send a payload of credentials in the request as shown in Authenticate. If the request succeeds, the server returns an authentication token.
  2. Send API requests and include the token in the X-Auth-Token header. Continue to send API requests with that token until the service completes the request or the Unauthorized (401) error occurs.
  3. If the Unauthorized (401) error occurs, request another token.

The examples in this section use cURL commands. For information about cURL, see http://curl.haxx.se/. For information about the OpenStack APIs, see OpenStack API Reference.

Authenticate

The payload of credentials to authenticate contains these parameters:

Parameter Type Description
username (required) string The user name. If you do not provide a user name and password, you must provide a token.
password (required) string The password for the user.
tenantName (Optional) string The tenant name. Both the tenantId and tenantName are optional and mutually exclusive. If you specify both attributes, the server returns the Bad Request (400) response code.
tenantId (Optional) string The tenant ID. Both the tenantId and tenantName are optional and mutually exclusive. If you specify both attributes, the server returns the Bad Request (400) response code. If you do not know the tenant name or ID, send a request with “” for the tenant name or ID. The response returns the tenant name or ID.
token (Optional) string A token. If you do not provide a token, you must provide a user name and password.

In a typical OpenStack deployment that runs Identity, you can specify your tenant name, and user name and password credentials to authenticate.

First, export your tenant name to the OS_PROJECT_NAME environment variable, your user name to the OS_USERNAME environment variable, and your password to the OS_PASSWORD environment variable. The example below uses a TryStack endpoint but you can also use $OS_IDENTITYENDPOINT as an environment variable as needed.

Then, run this cURL command to request a token:

$ curl -s -X POST $OS_AUTH_URL/tokens \
  -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
  -d '{"auth": {"tenantName": "'"$OS_PROJECT_NAME"'", "passwordCredentials": {"username": "'"$OS_USERNAME"'", "password": "'"$OS_PASSWORD"'"}}}' \
  | python -m json.tool

If the request succeeds, it returns the OK (200) response code followed by a response body that contains a token in the form "id":"token" and an expiration date and time in the form "expires":"datetime".

Note

If you do not know the tenant name or ID, send a request with “” for the tenant name or ID. The response returns the tenant name or ID.

$ curl -s -X POST $OS_AUTH_URL/tokens \
  -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
  -d '{"auth": {"tenantName": "", "passwordCredentials": {"username": "'"$OS_USERNAME"'", "password": "'"$OS_PASSWORD"'"}}}' \
  | python -m json.tool

The following example shows a successful response:

{
    "access": {
        "metadata": {
            "is_admin": 0,
            "roles": [
                "9fe2ff9ee4384b1894a90878d3e92bab"
            ]
        },
        "serviceCatalog": [
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8774/v2/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "id": "9484a876103048d6b6061405292a69ec",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8774/v2/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8774/v2/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "nova",
                "type": "compute"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:9696/",
                        "id": "48bb1eaac6004287b569171d6eff3a8b",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:9696/",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:9696/",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "neutron",
                "type": "network"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8776/v2/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "id": "4914cc64592048ab823beeed6ff58add",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8776/v2/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8776/v2/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "cinderv2",
                "type": "volumev2"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8779/v1.0/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "id": "255f5bcfd284485ebf033f7488a1a0bd",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8779/v1.0/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8779/v1.0/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "trove",
                "type": "database"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8080",
                        "id": "18c55bdb3f4044958cc2257a9345d921",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8080",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8080",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "swift_s3",
                "type": "s3"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:9292",
                        "id": "2b8be454ac394e4bb482c88a1876c987",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:9292",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:9292",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "glance",
                "type": "image"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8774/v3",
                        "id": "b806c63677334f5c8318234a9f8ce6be",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8774/v3",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8774/v3",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "novav3",
                "type": "computev3"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.3:8786/v1/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "id": "83daad78b4e94ff98ed0dc9384d2287b",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.3:8786/v1/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8786/v1/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "manila",
                "type": "share"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8777",
                        "id": "4d6b384ae0ad4f9c840d9841d2558fc2",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8777",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8777",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "ceilometer",
                "type": "metering"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8776/v1/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "id": "0504d7f8035a4149ba41842bae498a10",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8776/v1/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8776/v1/2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "cinder",
                "type": "volume"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8773/services/Admin",
                        "id": "5b8d4c3357e04be78a8eb928a839cdd7",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8773/services/Cloud",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8773/services/Cloud",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "nova_ec2",
                "type": "ec2"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8080/",
                        "id": "1a4c96b000de4474908e45460017bf00",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:8080/v1/AUTH_2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:8080/v1/AUTH_2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "swift",
                "type": "object-store"
            },
            {
                "endpoints": [
                    {
                        "adminURL": "http://172.16.1.2:35357/v2.0",
                        "id": "40c9824d67dc4ef5b3b9495e117719a2",
                        "internalURL": "http://172.16.1.2:5000/v2.0",
                        "publicURL": "http://128.136.179.2:5000/v2.0",
                        "region": "RegionOne"
                    }
                ],
                "endpoints_links": [],
                "name": "keystone",
                "type": "identity"
            }
        ],
        "token": {
            "audit_ids": [
                "a8ozqFkkSfCmUQpbCZlS-w"
            ],
            "expires": "2015-11-05T23:23:27Z",
            "id": "4b57c7d386a7438b829d1a8922e0eaac",
            "issued_at": "2015-11-05T22:23:27.166658",
            "tenant": {
                "description": "Auto created account",
                "enabled": true,
                "id": "2a124051e083457091cecc3aa553a5a9",
                "name": "facebook987654321"
            }
        },
        "user": {
            "id": "182d9ad16c2a4397bdceb595658b830f",
            "name": "facebook987654321",
            "roles": [
                {
                    "name": "_member_"
                }
            ],
            "roles_links": [],
            "username": "facebook987654321"
        }
    }
}

Send API requests

This section shows how to make some basic Compute API calls. For a complete list of Compute API calls, see Compute API.

Export the token ID to the OS_TOKEN environment variable. For example:

export OS_TOKEN=4b57c7d386a7438b829d1a8922e0eaab

The token expires every hour by default, though it can be configured differently - see the expiration option in the Description of token configuration options section of the Identity Service Configuration page.

Export the tenant name to the OS_PROJECT_NAME environment variable. For example:

export OS_PROJECT_NAME=demo

Then, use the Compute API to list flavors, substituting the Compute API endpoint with one containing your project ID below:

$ curl -s -H "X-Auth-Token: $OS_TOKEN" \
  $OS_COMPUTE_API/flavors \
  | python -m json.tool
{
    "flavors": [
        {
            "id": "1",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/1",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/1",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                }
            ],
            "name": "m1.tiny"
        },
        {
            "id": "2",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/2",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/2",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                }
            ],
            "name": "m1.small"
        },
        {
            "id": "3",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/3",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/3",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                }
            ],
            "name": "m1.medium"
        },
        {
            "id": "4",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/4",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/4",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                }
            ],
            "name": "m1.large"
        },
        {
            "id": "5",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/5",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/flavors/5",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                }
            ],
            "name": "m1.xlarge"
        }
    ]
}

Export the $OS_PROJECT_ID from the token call, and then use the Compute API to list images:

$ curl -s -H "X-Auth-Token: $OS_TOKEN" \
  http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/$OS_PROJECT_ID/images \
  | python -m json.tool
{
    "images": [
        {
            "id": "2dadcc7b-3690-4a1d-97ce-011c55426477",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/2dadcc7b-3690-4a1d-97ce-011c55426477",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/2dadcc7b-3690-4a1d-97ce-011c55426477",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:9292/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/2dadcc7b-3690-4a1d-97ce-011c55426477",
                    "type": "application/vnd.openstack.image",
                    "rel": "alternate"
                }
            ],
            "name": "Fedora 21 x86_64"
        },
        {
            "id": "cfba3478-8645-4bc8-97e8-707b9f41b14e",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/cfba3478-8645-4bc8-97e8-707b9f41b14e",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/cfba3478-8645-4bc8-97e8-707b9f41b14e",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:9292/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/cfba3478-8645-4bc8-97e8-707b9f41b14e",
                    "type": "application/vnd.openstack.image",
                    "rel": "alternate"
                }
            ],
            "name": "Ubuntu 14.04 amd64"
        },
        {
            "id": "2e4c08a9-0ecd-4541-8a45-838479a88552",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/2e4c08a9-0ecd-4541-8a45-838479a88552",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/2e4c08a9-0ecd-4541-8a45-838479a88552",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:9292/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/2e4c08a9-0ecd-4541-8a45-838479a88552",
                    "type": "application/vnd.openstack.image",
                    "rel": "alternate"
                }
            ],
            "name": "CentOS 7 x86_64"
        },
        {
            "id": "c8dd9096-60c1-4e23-a486-82955481df9f",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/c8dd9096-60c1-4e23-a486-82955481df9f",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/c8dd9096-60c1-4e23-a486-82955481df9f",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:9292/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/c8dd9096-60c1-4e23-a486-82955481df9f",
                    "type": "application/vnd.openstack.image",
                    "rel": "alternate"
                }
            ],
            "name": "CentOS 6.5 x86_64"
        },
        {
            "id": "f97b8d36-935e-4666-9c58-8a0afc6d3796",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/f97b8d36-935e-4666-9c58-8a0afc6d3796",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/f97b8d36-935e-4666-9c58-8a0afc6d3796",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:9292/f9828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/images/f97b8d36-935e-4666-9c58-8a0afc6d3796",
                    "type": "application/vnd.openstack.image",
                    "rel": "alternate"
                }
            ],
            "name": "Fedora 20 x86_64"
        }
    ]
}

Export the $OS_PROJECT_ID from the token call, and then use the Compute API to list servers:

$ curl -s -H "X-Auth-Token: $OS_TOKEN" \
  http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/$OS_PROJECT_ID/servers \
  | python -m json.tool
{
    "servers": [
        {
            "id": "41551256-abd6-402c-835b-e87e559b2249",
            "links": [
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/v2/f8828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/servers/41551256-abd6-402c-835b-e87e559b2249",
                    "rel": "self"
                },
                {
                    "href": "http://8.21.28.222:8774/f8828a18c6484624b571e85728780ba8/servers/41551256-abd6-402c-835b-e87e559b2249",
                    "rel": "bookmark"
                }
            ],
            "name": "test-server"
        }
    ]
}

OpenStack command-line clients

For scripting work and simple requests, you can use a command-line client like the openstack-client client. This client enables you to use the Identity, Compute, Block Storage, and Object Storage APIs through a command-line interface. Also, each OpenStack project has a related client project that includes Python API bindings and a command-line interface (CLI).

For information about the command-line clients, see OpenStack Command-Line Interface Reference.

Install the clients

Use pip to install the OpenStack clients on a Mac OS X or Linux system. It is easy and ensures that you get the latest version of the client from the Python Package Index. Also, pip lets you update or remove a package.

You must install the client for each project separately, but the python-openstackclient covers multiple projects.

Install or update a client package:

$ sudo pip install [--upgrade] python-PROJECTclient

Where PROJECT is the project name.

For example, install the openstack client:

$ sudo pip install python-openstackclient

To update the openstack client, run this command:

$ sudo pip install --upgrade python-openstackclient

To remove the openstack client, run this command:

$ sudo pip uninstall python-openstackclient

Before you can issue client commands, you must download and source the openrc file to set environment variables.

For complete information about the OpenStack clients, including how to source the openrc file, see OpenStack End User Guide, OpenStack Administrator Guide, and OpenStack Command-Line Interface Reference.

Launch an instance

To launch instances, you must choose a name, an image, and a flavor for your instance.

To list available images, call the Compute API through the openstack client:

$ openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+------------------+
| ID                                   | Name             |
+--------------------------------------+------------------+
| a5604931-af06-4512-8046-d43aabf272d3 | fedora-20.x86_64 |
+--------------------------------------+------------------+

To list flavors, run this command:

$ openstack flavor list
+----+-----------+-----------+------+-----------+------+-------+-----------+
| ID | Name      | Memory_MB | Disk | Ephemeral | Swap | VCPUs | Is_Public |
+----+-----------+-----------+------+-----------+------+-------+-----------+
| 1  | m1.tiny   | 512       | 0    | 0         |      | 1     | True      |
| 2  | m1.small  | 2048      | 20   | 0         |      | 1     | True      |
| 3  | m1.medium | 4096      | 40   | 0         |      | 2     | True      |
| 4  | m1.large  | 8192      | 80   | 0         |      | 4     | True      |
| 42 | m1.nano   | 64        | 0    | 0         |      | 1     | True      |
| 5  | m1.xlarge | 16384     | 160  | 0         |      | 8     | True      |
| 84 | m1.micro  | 128       | 0    | 0         |      | 1     | True      |
+----+-----------+-----------+------+-----------+------+-------+-----------+

To launch an instance, note the IDs of your desired image and flavor.

To launch the my_instance instance, run the openstack server create command with the image and flavor IDs and the server name:

$ openstack server create --image a5604931-af06-4512-8046-d43aabf272d3 --flavor 1 my_instance
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                                | Value                                                   |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                    | MANUAL                                                  |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone          | nova                                                    |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state               | 0                                                       |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state                | scheduling                                              |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                  | building                                                |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at               | None                                                    |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at             | None                                                    |
| accessIPv4                           |                                                         |
| accessIPv6                           |                                                         |
| addresses                            |                                                         |
| adminPass                            | 3vgzpLzChoac                                            |
| config_drive                         |                                                         |
| created                              | 2015-08-27T03:02:27Z                                    |
| flavor                               | m1.tiny (1)                                             |
| hostId                               |                                                         |
| id                                   | 1553694c-d711-4954-9b20-84b8cb4598c6                    |
| image                                | fedora-20.x86_64 (a5604931-af06-4512-8046-d43aabf272d3) |
| key_name                             | None                                                    |
| name                                 | my_instance                                             |
| os-extended-volumes:volumes_attached | []                                                      |
| progress                             | 0                                                       |
| project_id                           | 9f0e4aa4fd3d4b0ea3184c0fe7a32210                        |
| properties                           |                                                         |
| security_groups                      | [{u'name': u'default'}]                                 |
| status                               | BUILD                                                   |
| updated                              | 2015-08-27T03:02:28Z                                    |
| user_id                              | b3ce0cfc170641e98ff5e42b1be9c85a                        |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------+

Note

For information about the default ports that the OpenStack components use, see Firewalls and default ports in the OpenStack Configuration Reference.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Except where otherwise noted, this document is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. See all OpenStack Legal Documents.